Anapa (Russian: Ана́па) originally is a seaport for the Natkhuay tribe Adyghe people, and now a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea near the Sea of Azov. Population: 53,493 (2002 Census); 54,796 (1989 Census). It boasts a number of sanatoria and hotels; along with Sochi and several other cities along the Russian coast of the Black Sea, it has enjoyed a substantial increase in popularity since the fall of the Soviet Union, which left traditional Soviet resort cities in Crimea and Abkhazia on the other side of a national border. Anapa is served by Anapa Airport (AAQ).
Anapa, like the other Black Sea coast resorts, has a superb sunny summer climate. Anapa shows beautiful (and mostly sandy) beaches. However, Anapa seldom attracts vacation-goers from outside Russia due to its modest infrastructure and its inconvenient accessibility from Western Europe via Moscow or Krasnodar. Anapa remains an attractive and inexpensive option for Russians who prefer traditional Russian resorts to more expensive destinations such as Antalya on Turkey’s Mediterranean coast or Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt, both noted for their popularity among Russians.
The area around Anapa was settled in antiquity. It was at first a major port (Sinda) and then the capital of Sindica (Ancient Greek: Σινδική). The colony of Gorgippia (Γοργιππία) was built on the site of Sinda in the sixth century BCE by Pontic Greeks, who named it after a king of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC, Gorgippia flourished, as did its guild of shipowners, which controlled maritime trade in the eastern part of the Black Sea. A fine statue of Neokles (a local potentate, son of Herodoros) was unearthed by Russian archaeologists and is now on exhibit at the Russian Museum. Gorgippia was inhabited until the third century CE, when it was overrun by nomadic tribes. These tribes are a Circassian or Adyghe origin, gave Anapa its modern name. Anapa was part of Sarmatians, Ostrogoths, European Huns, Avars, Gokturks, Khazars, Circassians and Golden Horde. Anapa was conquered by the Genoese in 1300 and was renamed as “Mapa”. Genoese possession of it was lasted until Ottoman conquest in 1475. Ottomans completed a fortress for defense of it against Russian threat in 1791. The fortress was repeatedly attacked by the Russian Empire and was all but destroyed during its last siege in 1829. The city was passed to Russia after Treaty of Adrianople in 1829. It was included in Black Sea okrug of Kuban oblast and was given city status in 1846. It was occupied by Ottomans between 1853-1856 during Crimean War. It was belonged to Black Sea Governorate in 1896. Elizabeth Pilenko, later named as a saint in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, was the mayor during the Revolution. It becamepart of the Kuban-Black Sea Oblast in 1920. The name of the oblast was changed as “Krasnodar Krai” in 1937. It was occupied and totally demolished by Nazi Germany with help Romanian troops between August 30, 1942 and September 22, 1943 during World War II.